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CANCER PREVENTION

Natural Strategies To Help Avoid Cancer

What is Cancer?
The word "cancer" is a general term used to describe body cells that grow uncontrollably and often invade other body tissue. Benign tumors are also body cells that multiply, but they do not grow uncontrollably and invade other parts of the body. Cancer can begin in virtually any part of the body. The most common locations for cancer are the lungs, colon, breast, and prostate.

How does Cancer start?
Scientists believe that cancer starts as a single cell with altered chromosomes. Chromosomes are the "brain" inside each cell in the body. Chromosomes tell the cell how to behave.

In cancer cells, abnormal chromosomes give rise to abnormal cell behavior. Such abnormal behavior includes rapid multiplication of cells. Unlike normal cells, cancer cells do not stop growing when they reach a particular number. Instead, they continue to multiply, pushing on vital organs, robbing the "host" of nutrients, and spreading to other parts of the body by way of the lymphatic or blood-vascular system. (A process called "metastasis").

What Causes Cancer?
Altered chromosomes inside the cell are ultimately thought to be responsible for abnormal cell behavior. But what causes chromosomes to become altered?

A number of factors are known to alter chromosomes. Some of these alterations may be pre-programmed into a cell; what we would call "genetic." A person may be born with such abnormal chromosomes.

Other factors that are known to damage chromosomes and initiate cancer are known as carcinogens. These appear to be a far more common cause of cancer. Carcinogenic substances include ionizing radiation, smoke, and a wide variety of chemicals. Chronic irritation of any body tissue can also cause a cell to become cancerous.

Cancer and the Immune System
Scientists have demonstrated that a normal body produces approximately 300 or more cancerous cells per day. So why doesn't everyone develop cancer? The answer lies in the immune system, a portion of the body that is designed to protect us from foreign "invasion." In a body with a healthy immune system, cancer cells are recognized and destroyed. This process occurs inside everyone, all the time, every day. When the immune system is "compromised' for any reason - for example, from nutritional deficiencies, cigarette smoking, or excessive physical or emotional stress - it may fail to identify cancerous cells. Once a cancerous cell begins to multiply, it becomes more difficult for the immune system to contain it. (Think of a wild fire. Very early, it is easy to put out. Let it "grow" for a while, and it becomes more dangerous).

Diagnosis of Cancer
There is no early blood or other tests that will tell us when an aberrant cell has escaped immune system recognition. In fact, our current diagnosis of cancer usually relies on a "mass," or noticeable tumor, being present. Mammography, a low dose X-ray picture taken of the female breast, is an example of an early detection method. Though often touted as "prevention," it is not. Diagnostic test are a means of early detection of cancer. They are NOT preventive measures.

The "War on Cancer"
President Nixon signed a bill on December 23, 1971, declaring an all-out "war" on cancer. This bill opened a floodgate of federal funding to research a cure for cancer. Since the signing of this bill, tens of billions of dollars of federal money, and additional private sector money, have been spent on this "war on cancer."

Don't let anyone fool you: it's a "war" we're losing. Since the signing of this bill, the death rate from cancer has risen. Some people will tell you these statistics are inaccurate because people are living longer, but this, too, is a falsehood. These numbers are age adjusted.

Common cancers, such as lung cancer, are increasingly common. Prostate and brain cancers and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma are beginning to rise in the general population. So are a number of other types of cancer.

Conventional Treatment of Cancer
Like the stories that suggest that we are winning the "war on cancer," conventional treatment improvements are a myth. There has been little significant advancement in the treatment of cancer in the past twenty years.

What has improved is our ability to detect cancer earlier, when it is still curable by surgery alone. Radiation and chemotherapy can provide a margin of additional "time" in a few types of cancer, but often at the expense of quality of life.

Surgery still remains one of the best conventional treatments for cancer, and then, it is most effective when the cancer is detected early. Surgery is also more effective when the immune system is otherwise strong and healthy.

Don't misunderstand me. There are some advances in survival times with the use of certain drugs. For example, the anti-estrogen drug Tamoxifen improves survival times in post menopausal women with hormone-responsive breast cancer. Of course, if these women were "stage I" or "stage II' when their cancer was removed, the chance of recurrence of cancer is very low anyway. Again, this is an indication that early detection and surgical removal remains one of our most effective conventional treatments. Certain nutritional supplements should sometimes be avoided during chemotherapy because they can reduce the effectiveness of the drugs, but most supplements actually minimize negative side-effects of chemotherapy and radiation. And there are some types of cancers that, although present in a body, should probably be left alone because they are unlikely to spread.

All of these questions need to be answered with the assistance of an holistic physician who can help you determine the best course of action to take and will work with you to sort out the legitimate treatments from the "hype." There is no room for guesswork and inexperience once a diagnosis of cancer has been made. Please consider obtaining a consultation with Dr. Myatt.

Prevention is the Best "Cure"
Modern medical science may not know much more about treating cancer than it did twenty years ago, but we do know a lot more about prevention. At this point in medical history, it's fair to say that prevention of cancer is a surer and safer bet than cure.

DIET AND LIFESTYLE RECOMMENDATIONS

  • Maintain a normal weight. Excess body fat is associated with a number of cancers, including postmenopausal breast cancer and prostate cancer.
  • Eat a diet rich in antioxidant nutrient foods (fruits and vegetables). Include "Super Foods" lavishly. Use soy and soy products if tolerated. Buy organic produce whenever possible.
  • Do not smoke. Limit alcohol consumption.
  • Drink pure water, not tap water. Chlorine byproducts are can cause urinary tract and other cancers. Other contaminants in water have unknown effects but many are believed to relate to cancer.
  • Exercise regularly. Many types of cancers (ovarian, breast, prostate, colon) occur far less often (up to 50% less) in people who engage in regular physical activity. [Ref.: N. Eng. J. Med. 338:94,1998]
  • Practice "Emotional hygiene." Emotional distress ("stress") suppresses the immune system and may make a person more susceptible to cancer and other diseases. Conversely, optimism is associated with improved immunity in a number of studies. Watch The Body/Mind Connection video to learn exactly how this occurs.

PRIMARY SUPPORT:

  • Maxi Multi: 3 caps, 3 times per day with meals. Optimal (not minimal) doses of all nutrients are important in preventing cancer, since a single micronutrient deficiency can cause immune system weakness. Antioxidants (A, C, carotene and selenium), and vitamin D are especially important.
  • Maxi Greens: 3 caps, 3 times daily with meals for complete phytonutrient coverage.
  • Omega 3 fatty acids:
    Flax seed meal, 2 teaspoons per day with food
    OR
    Flax seed capsules
    : 2-4 caps, 3 times per day (target dose range: 6-12 caps per day)
    OR
    Flax seed oil
    : 1-2 tablespoons per day
    OR
    Max EPA
    (Omega-3 rich fish oil): 1-2 caps, 3 times per day with meals (target dose: 3-6 caps per day).

ADDITIONAL SUPPORT


References

Body Weight (BMI) and Cancer

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Super Foods

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3.) Cohen JH, Kristal AR, Stanford JL. Fruit and vegetable intakes and prostate cancer risk. J Natl Cancer Inst 2000;92(1):61–8.
4.) Cohen JH, Kristal AR, Stanford JL. Fruit and vegetable intakes and prostate cancer risk. J Natl Cancer Inst 2000;92(1):61–8.
5.) Kune GA. Eating fish protects against some cancers: epidemiological and experimental evidence for a hypothesis. J Nutr Med 1990;1:139–44 [review].
6.) Rose DP, Connolley JM. Omega-3 fatty acids as cancer chemopreventive agents. Pharmacol Ther 1999;83:217–44.
7.) Demark-Wahnefried W, Price DT, Polascik TJ, et al. Pilot study of dietary fat restriction and flaxseed supplementation in men with prostate cancer before surgery: exploring the effects on hormonal levels, prostate-specific antigen, and histopathologic features. Urology2001;58:47–52.
8.) Davis JN, Singh B, Bhuiyan M, Sarkar FH. Genistein-induced upregulation of p21WAF1, downregulation of cyclin B, and induction of apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. Nutr Cancer 1998;32:123–31.
9.) Barnes S, Peterson TG, Coward L. Rationale for the use of genistein-containing soy matrices in chemoprevention trials for breast and prostate cancer. J Cell Biochem Suppl 1995;22:181–7.
10.) Jacobsen BK, Knutsen SF, Fraser GE. Does high soy milk intake reduce prostate cancer incidence? The Adventist Health Study (United States). Cancer Causes Control 1998;9:553–7.
11.) Geller J, Sionit L, Partido C, et al. Genistein inhibits the growth of human-patient BPH and prostate cancer in histoculture. Prostate 1998;34:75–9.

Smoking, Alcohol and Cancer Risk

1.) Kaufman EL, Jacobson JS, Hershman DL, Desai M, Neugut AI. Effect of breast cancer radiotherapy and cigarette smoking on risk of second primary lung cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2008 Jan 20;26(3):392-8.
2.) Park SM, Lim MK, Jung KW, Shin SA, Yoo KY, Yun YH, Huh BY. Prediagnosis smoking, obesity, insulin resistance, and second primary cancer risk in male cancer survivors: National Health Insurance Corporation Study. J Clin Oncol. 2007 Oct 20;25(30):4835-43.
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Aaltonen LM. Alcohol, smoking and human papillomavirus in laryngeal carcinoma: a Nordic prospective multicenter study. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2007 Sep;133(9):673-8. Epub 2007 May 8.
4.) Muwonge R, Ramadas K, Sankila R, Thara S, Thomas G, Vinoda J, Sankaranarayanan R. Role of tobacco smoking, chewing and alcohol drinking in the risk of oral cancer in Trivandrum, India: A nested case-control design using incident cancer cases. Oral Oncol. 2007 Oct 12
5.) Chen CH, Shun CT, Huang KH, Huang CY, Tsai YC, Yu HJ, Pu YS. Stopping smoking might reduce tumour recurrence in nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer. BJU Int. 2007 Aug;100(2):281-6; discussion 286. Epub 2007 Apr 5.
6.) Rieck G, Fiander A.The effect of lifestyle factors on gynaecological cancer. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2006 Apr;20(2):227-51.
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8.) van Leeuwen FE, Klokman WJ, Stovall M, Hagenbeek A, van den Belt-Dusebout AW, Noyon R, Boice JD Jr, Burgers JM, Somers R. Roles of radiotherapy and smoking in lung cancer following Hodgkin's disease. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1995 Oct 18;87(20):1530-7.
9.) Neugut AI, Murray T, Santos J, Amols H, Hayes MK, Flannery JT, Robinson E. Increased risk of lung cancer after breast cancer radiation therapy in cigarette smokers. Cancer. 1994 Mar
15;73(6):1541-3.
10.) Day GL, Blot WJ, Shore RE, McLaughlin JK, Austin DF, Greenberg RS, Liff JM, Preston-Martin S, Sarkar S, Schoenberg JB, et al. Second cancers following oral and pharyngeal cancers: role of tobacco and alcohol. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1994 Jan 19;86(2):131-7.
11.) Day GL, Shore RE, Blot WJ, McLaughlin JK, Austin DF, Greenberg RS, Liff JM, Preston-Martin S, Sarkar S, Schoenberg JB, et al. Dietary factors and second primary cancers: a follow-up of oral and pharyngeal cancer patients. Nutr Cancer. 1994;21(3):223-32.

Drinking Water and Cancer Risk

1.) Richardson SD, Plewa MJ, Wagner ED, Schoeny R, Demarini DM. Occurrence, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicity of regulated and emerging disinfection by-products in drinking water: a review and roadmap for research. Mutat Res. 2007 Nov-Dec;636(1-3):178-242. Epub 2007 Sep 12.
2.) Kasim K, Levallois P, Johnson KC, Abdous B, Auger P; Canadian Cancer Registries Epidemiology Research Group. Chlorination disinfection by-products in drinking water and the risk of adult leukemia in Canada. Am J Epidemiol. 2006 Jan 15;163(2):116-26. Epub 2005 Nov 30.
3.) Do MT, Birkett NJ, Johnson KC, Krewski D, Villeneuve P; Canadian Cancer Registries Epidemiology Research Group. Chlorination disinfection by-products and pancreatic cancer risk.
Environ Health Perspect. 2005 Apr;113(4):418-24.
4.) Cancer Causes Control. 1996 Nov;7(6):596-604. Drinking water source and chlorination byproducts in Iowa. III. Risk of brain cancer. Am J Epidemiol. 1999 Sep 15;150(6):552-60.
5.) Wigle DT. Safe drinking water: a public health challenge. Chronic Dis Can. 1998;19(3):103-7. Review.
6.) Cantor KP, Lynch CF, Hildesheim ME, Dosemeci M, Lubin J, Alavanja M, Craun G.Drinking water source and chlorination byproducts. I. Risk of bladder cancer. Epidemiology. 1998 Jan;9(1):21-8.
7.) King WD, Marrett LD. Case-control study of bladder cancer and chlorination by-products in treated water (Ontario, Canada). Cancer Causes Control. 1996 Nov;7(6):596-604.

Exercise and Cancer

1.) Valenti M, Porzio G, Aielli F, Verna L, Cannita K, Manno R, Masedu F, Marchetti P, Ficorella C.Physical exercise and quality of life in breast cancer survivors. Int J Med Sci. 2008 Jan 15;5(1):24-8.
2.) Greenspan SL. Approach to the prostate cancer patient with bone disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008 Jan;93(1):2-7.
3.) Farrell SW, Cortese GM, Lamonte MJ, Blair SN.Cardiorespiratory fitness, different measures of adiposity, and cancer mortality in men.Obesity (Silver Spring). 2007 Dec;15(12):3140-9.
4.) McBride D. Healthful eating and exercise may lower  mortality after breast cancer. ONS Connect. 2007 Dec;22(12):27.
5.) Karvinen KH, Courneya KS, North S, Venner P.  Associations between exercise and quality of life in bladder cancer survivors: a population-based study.Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2007 May;16(5):984-90.
6.) Kruk J. Physical activity in the prevention of the most frequent chronic diseases: an analysis of the recent evidence. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2007 Jul-Sep;8(3):325-38.
7.) Lynch BM, Cerin E, Owen N, Aitken JF. Associations of leisure-time physical activity with quality of life in a large, population-based sample of colorectal cancer survivors. Cancer Causes Control. 2007 Sep;18(7):735-42. Epub 2007 May 23.
8.) Milne HM, Gordon S, Guilfoyle A, Wallman KE, Courneya KS. Association between physical activity and quality of life among Western Australian breast cancer survivors. Psychooncology. 2007 Dec;16(12):1059-68.
9.) Stevinson C, Faught W, Steed H, Tonkin K, Ladha AB, Vallance JK, Capstick V, Schepansky A, Courneya KS.Associations between physical activity and quality of life in ovarian cancer survivors. Gynecol Oncol. 2007 Jul;106(1):244-50. Epub 2007 May 9.
10.) Chang SC, Ziegler RG, Dunn B, Stolzenberg-Solomon R, Lacey JV Jr, Huang WY, Schatzkin A, Reding D, Hoover RN, Hartge P, Leitzmann MF. Association of energy intake and energy balance with postmenopausal breast cancer in the prostate, lung, colorectal, and ovarian cancer screening trial. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2006 Feb;15(2):334-41.
11.) Rogers LQ, Courneya KS, Robbins KT, Malone J, Seiz A, Koch L, Rao K, Nagarkar M. Physical activity and quality of life in head and neck cancer survivors. 1: Support Care Cancer. 2006 Oct;14(10):1012-9. Epub 2006 Mar 15.
12.) Hanna L, Adams M. Prevention of ovarian cancer. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2006 Apr;20(2):339-62. Epub 2005 Dec 20.
13.) Pan SY, Ugnat AM, Mao Y. Physical activity and the risk of ovarian cancer: a case-control study in Canada. Int J Cancer. 2005 Nov 1;117(2):300-7.
14.) Courneya KS, Karvinen KH, Campbell KL, Pearcey RG,  Dundas G, Capstick V, Tonkin KS. Associations among exercise, body weight, and quality of life in a population-based sample of endometrial cancer survivors. Gynecol Oncol. 2005 May;97(2):422-30.
15.) Vallance JK, Courneya KS, Jones LW, Reiman T. Differences in quality of life between non-Hodgkin's lymphoma survivors meeting and not meeting public health exercise guidelines. Psychooncology. 2005 Nov;14(11):979-91.
16.) Zhang M, Xie X, Lee AH, Binns CW.Sedentary behaviours and epithelial ovarian cancer risk. Cancer Causes Control. 2004 Feb;15(1):83-9.

Emotional Hygiene and The immune System

1.) Chandrashekara S, Jayashree K, Veeranna HB, Vadiraj HS, Ramesh MN, Shobha A, Sarvanan Y, Vikram YK. Effects of anxiety on TNF-alpha levels during psychological stress. J Psychosom Res. 2007 Jul;63(1):65-9.
2.) Witek-Janusek L, Gabram S, Mathews HL.Psychologic stress, reduced NK cell activity, and cytokine dysregulation in women experiencing diagnostic breast biopsy. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2007 Jan;32(1):22-35. Epub 2006 Nov 7.
3.) Di Donato A, Di Giampaolo L, Reale M, Dadorante V, Alparone F, Stocchi M, Fattorini E, Di Gioacchino M, Magrini A, Boscolo P. Effect of occupational stress and anxiety on natural killer lymphocyte activity of men and women employed in a university. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. 2006 Oct-Dec;19(4 Suppl):79-84.
4.) Barak Y. The immune system and happiness. Autoimmun Rev. 2006 Oct;5(8):523-7. Epub 2006 Mar 21.
5.) Ickovics JR, Milan S, Boland R, Schoenbaum E, Schuman P, Vlahov D; HIV Epidemiology Research Study (HERS) Group.Psychological resources protect health: 5-year survival and immune function among HIV-infected women from four US cities. AIDS. 2006 Sep 11;20(14):1851-60.
6.) Rosenkranz MA, Jackson DC, Dalton KM, Dolski I, Ryff CD, Singer BH, Muller D, Kalin NH, Davidson RJ. Affective style and in vivo immune response: neurobehavioral mechanisms. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Sep 16;100(19):11148-52. Epub 2003 Sep 5.

Multiple Vitamins and Cancer

1.) Simone CB 2nd, Simone NL, Simone V, Simone CB. Antioxidants and other nutrients do not interfere with chemotherapy or radiation therapy and can increase kill and increase survival, part 1. Altern Ther Health Med. 2007 Jan-Feb;13(1):22-8.
2.) Simone CB 2nd, Simone NL, Simone V, Simone CB. Antioxidants and other nutrients do not interfere with chemotherapy or radiation therapy and can increase kill and increase survival, Part 2. Altern Ther Health Med. 2007 Mar-Apr;13(2):40-7.
3.) Tsao SM, Yin MC, Liu WH. Oxidant stress and B vitamins status in patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Nutr Cancer. 2007;59(1):8-13.
4.) Moss RW. Should patients undergoing chemotherapy and radiotherapy be prescribed antioxidants? Integr Cancer Ther. 2006 Mar;5(1):63-82.
5.) Moyad MA. The use of complementary/preventive medicine to prevent prostate cancer recurrence/progression following definitive therapy. Part II--rapid review of dietary supplements. Curr Opin Urol. 2003 Mar;13(2):147-51.
6.) Moyad MA. Potential lifestyle and dietary supplement options for the prevention and postdiagnosis of bladder cancer. Urol Clin North Am. 2002 Feb;29(1):31-48, viii.
7.) Kamat AM, Lamm DL. Diet and nutrition in urologic cancer. W V Med J. 2000 May-Jun;96(3):449-54.
9.) Jatoi A, Daly BD, Kramer G, Mason JB. A cross-sectional study of vitamin intake in postoperative non-small cell lung cancer patients. J Surg Oncol 1998;68:231–6.
10.) Jatoi A, Daly BD, Kramer G, Mason JB. A cross-sectional study of vitamin intake in postoperative non-small cell lung cancer patients. J Surg Oncol 1998;68:231–6.
11.) Lamm DL, Riggs DR, Shriver JS, vanGilder PF, Rach JF, DeHaven JI. Megadose vitamins in bladder cancer: a double-blind clinical trial. J Urol. 1994 Jan;151(1):21-6.

Antioxidants (General) and Cancer

1.) Simone CB 2nd, Simone NL, Simone V, Simone CB. Antioxidants and other nutrients do not interfere with chemotherapy or radiation therapy and can increase kill and increase survival, part 1. Altern Ther Health Med. 2007 Jan-Feb;13(1):22-8.
2.) Simone CB 2nd, Simone NL, Simone V, Simone CB. Antioxidants and other nutrients do not interfere with chemotherapy or radiation therapy and can increase kill and increase survival, Part 2. Altern Ther Health Med. 2007 Mar-Apr;13(2):40-7.
3.) Kirsh VA, Hayes RB, Mayne ST, Chatterjee N, Subar AF, Dixon LB, Albanes D, Andriole GL, Urban DA, Peters U; PLCO Trial. Supplemental and dietary vitamin E, beta-carotene, and vitamin C intakes and prostate cancer risk.J Natl Cancer Inst. 2006 Feb 15;98(4):245-54.
4.) Berger MM. Can oxidative damage be treated nutritionally? Clin Nutr. 2005 Apr;24(2):172-83.
5.) Ferguson LR, Philpott M, Karunasinghe N. Dietary cancer and prevention using antimutagens. Toxicology. 2004 May 20;198(1-3):147-59.
6.) Borek C. Dietary antioxidants and human cancer.Integr Cancer Ther. 2004 Dec;3(4):333-41.
7.) Prasad KN. Multiple dietary antioxidants enhance the efficacy of standard and experimental cancer therapies and decrease their toxicity. Integr Cancer Ther. 2004 Dec;3(4):310-22.
8.) Heyland DK, Dhaliwal R, Suchner U, Berger MM. Antioxidant nutrients: a systematic review of trace elements and vitamins in the critically ill patient. Intensive Care Med. 2005 Mar;31(3):327-37. Epub 2004 Dec 17.
9.) Kim YT, Kim JW, Choi JS, Kim SH, Choi EK, Cho NH. Relation between deranged antioxidant system and cervical neoplasia. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2004 Sep-Oct;14(5):889-95.
10.) Drisko JA, Chapman J, Hunter VJ. The use of antioxidant therapies during chemotherapy. Gynecol Oncol. 2003 Mar;88(3):434-9.
11.) Prasad KN, Cole WC, Kumar B, Prasad KC. Scientific rationale for using high-dose multiple micronutrients as an adjunct to standard and experimental cancer therapies. J Am Coll Nutr. 2001 Oct;20(5Suppl):450S-463S; discussion 473S-475S.
12.) Lamson DW, Brignall MS. Antioxidants in cancer therapy; their actions and interactions with oncologic therapies. Altern Med Rev. 1999 Oct;4(5):304-29.
13.) Prasad KN, Kumar A, Kochupillai V, Cole WC. High doses of multiple antioxidant vitamins: essential ingredients in improving the efficacy of standard cancer therapy. J Am Coll Nutr. 1999
Feb;18(1):13-25.
14.) Lupulescu A. The role of vitamins A, beta-carotene, E and C in cancer cell biology. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 1994;64(1):3-14.
15.) Stähelin HB. Critical reappraisal of vitamins and trace minerals in nutritional support of cancer patients. Support Care Cancer. 1993 Nov;1(6):295-7.

Vitamin A and Carotenes

1.) Yuan JM, Ross RK, Gao YT, Qu YH, Chu XD, Yu MC. Prediagnostic levels of serum micronutrients in relation to risk of gastric cancer in Shanghai, China. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2004 Nov;13(11 Pt 1):1772-80.
2.) Wu K, Erdman JW Jr, Schwartz SJ, Platz EA, Leitzmann M, Clinton SK, DeGroff V, Willett WC, Giovannucci E.Plasma and dietary carotenoids, and the risk of prostate cancer: a nested case-control study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2004 Feb;13(2):260-9.
3.) Kamat AM, Lamm DL. Chemoprevention of bladder cancer. Urol Clin North Am. 2002 Feb;29(1):157-68.
4.) Sato R, Helzlsouer KJ, Alberg AJ, Hoffman SC, Norkus EP, Comstock GW. Prospective study of carotenoids, tocopherols, and retinoid concentrations and the risk of breast cancer. Cancer
Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2002 May;11(5):451-7.
5.) Gann PH, Ma J, Giovannucci E, Willett W, Sacks FM, Hennekens CH,Stampfer MJ. Lower prostate cancer risk in men with elevated plasma lycopene levels: results of a prospective analysis. Cancer Res. 1999 Mar 15;59(6):1225-30.
6.) Giovannucci E, Ascherio A, Rimm EB, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Willett WC. ake of carotenoids and retinol in relation to risk of prostate cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1995 Dec 6;87(23):1767-76.
7.) Majewski S, Szmurlo A, Marczak M, Jablonska S, Bollag W.: Synergistic effect of retinoids and interferon alpha on tumor-induced angiogenesis: anti-angiogenic effect on HPV-harboring
tumor-cell lines.Int J Cancer. 1994 Apr 1;57(1):81-5.
8.) Pastorino U, Infante M, Maioli M, et al. Adjuvant treatment of stage I lung cancer with high-dose vitamin A. J Clin Oncol 1993;11:1216–22.

Vitamin C

1.) Wybieralska E, Koza M, Sroka J, Czyz J, Madeja Z. Ascorbic acid inhibits the migration of walker 256 carcinosarcoma cells. Cell Mol Biol Lett. 2008;13(1):103-11. Epub 2007 Oct 29.
2.) Hanck A. Vitamin C and cancer. Int J Vit Nutr Res 1983;(Suppl #24):87–104 [review].
3.) Murata A, Morishige F, Yamaguchi H. Prolongation of survival times of terminal cancer patients by administration of large doses of ascorbate. Int J Vit Nutr Res 1982;(Suppl #23):103–14.
4.) Bussey HJR, DeCosse JJ, Deschner EE, et al. A randomized trial of ascorbic acid in polyposis coli. Cancer 1982;50:1434–9.
5.) Cameron E, Pauling L. Supplemental ascorbate in the supportive treatment of cancer: reevaluation of prolongation of survival times in terminal human cancer. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1978;75:4538–42.
6.) Cameron E, Pauling L. Supplemental ascorbate in the supportive treatment of cancer: prolongation of survival times in terminal human cancer. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1976;73:3685–9.

Selenium

1.) Li H, Stampfer MJ, Giovannucci EL, Morris JS, Willett WC, Gaziano JM, Ma J.A prospective study of plasma selenium levels and prostate cancer risk. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2004 May
5;96(9):696-703.
2.) Yu M-W, Horng I-S, Hsu K-H, et al. Plasma selenium levels and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma among men with chronic hepatitis virus infection. Am J Epidemiol 1999;150:367–74.
3.) Knekt P, Marniemi J, Teppo L, et al. Is low selenium status a risk factor for lung cancer? 1998 Nov 15;148(10):975-82.
4.) Scieszka M, Danch A, Machalski M, Drozdz M. Plasma selenium concentration in patients with stomach and colon cancer in the Upper Silesia. Neoplasma 1997;44:395–7.
5.) Toma S, Micheletti A, Giacchero A, et al. Selenium therapy in patients with precancerous and malignant oral cavity lesions: preliminary results.Cancer Detection Prev 1991;15:491–3.
6.) Knekt P, Aromaa A, Maatela J, et al. Serum selenium and subsequent risk of cancer among Finnish men and women. J Natl Cancer Inst 1990;82:864–8.
7.) Burney PGJ, Comstock GW, Morris JS. Serologic precursors of cancer: serum micronutrients and the subsequent risk of pancreatic cancer. Am J Clin Nutr 1989;49:895–900.
8.) Helzlsouer KJ, Comstock GW, Morris JS. Selenium, lycopene, alpha-tocopherol, ß-carotene, retinol, and subsequent bladder cancer. Cancer Res 1989;49:6144–8.
9.) Jaskiewicz K, Marasas WF, Rossouw JE, et al. Selenium and other mineral elements in populations at risk for esophageal cancer. Cancer 1988;62:2635–9.
10.) Medina D, Morrison DG. Current ideas on selenium as a  chemopreventative agent. Pathol Immunopathol Res 1988;7:187–99.
11.) Fex G, Pettersson B, Akesson B. Low plasma selenium as a risk factor for cancer death in middle-aged men. Nutr Cancer 1987;10:221–9.
12.) Medina D. Mechanisms of selenium inhibition of tumorigenesis. Adv Exp Med Biol 1986;206:465–72.
13.) Willett WC, Polk BF, Morris JS, et al. Prediagnostic serum Selenium and risk of cancer. Lancet 1983;42:130–4.
14.) Beisel WR. Single nutrients and immunity. Am J Clin Nutr 1982;35:417–68.
15.) Shamberger RJ, Rukoven E, Lonfield AK, et al. Antioxidants and cancer. Selenium in the blood of normals and cancer patients. J Natl Cancer Inst 1973;4:863–70.

Vitamin D

1.) Lappe J, Travers-Gustafson D, Davies K, Recker R, Heaney R. Vitamin D and calcium supplementation reduces cancer risk: results of a randomized trial. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Jun;85(6):1586-91.
2.) Ma Y, et al. Study presented at the 2007 centennial meeting of the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR), April 14 to 18, 2007, Los Angeles.
3.)Holick MF.: Vitamin D: Its role in cancer prevention and treatment. Prog Biophys Mol Biol. 2006 Mar 10;
4.) Schwartz GG, Eads D, Rao A, Cramer SD, Willingham MC, Chen TC, Jamieson DP, Wang L, Burnstein KL, Holick MF, Koumenis C.:Pancreatic cancer cells express 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1
alpha-hydroxylase and their proliferation is inhibited by the prohormone 25-hydroxyvitamin D3.Carcinogenesis. 2004 Jun;25(6):1015-26. Epub 2004 Jan 23.
5.) Wietrzyk J, Pelczynska M, Madej J, Dzimira S, Kusnierczyk H, Kutner A, Szelejewski W, Opolski A.: Toxicity and antineoplastic effect of (24R)-1,24-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (PRI-2191).Steroids. 2004 Sep;69(10):629-35.
6.) Vegesna V, O'Kelly J, Said J, Uskokovic M, Binderup L, Koeffle HP.: Ability of potent vitamin D3 analogs to inhibit growth of prostate cancer cells in vivo. Anticancer Res. 2003 Jan-Feb;23(1A):283-9.
7.) Grant WB. An estimate of premature cancer mortality in the U.S. due to inadequate doses of solar ultraviolet-B radiation. Cancer. 2002 Mar 15;94(6):1867-75.
8.) Majewski S, Skopinska M, Marczak M, Szmurlo A, Bollag W, Jablonska S.: Vitamin D3 is a potent inhibitor of tumor cell-induced angiogenesis. J Investig Dermatol Symp Proc. 1996 Apr;1(1):97-101.
9.) James SY, Mackay AG, Colston KW. Effects of 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 and its analogues on induction of apoptosis in breast cancer cells. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 1996
Jul;58(4):395-401.
10.) Schwartz GG, Hill CC, Oeler TA, Becich MJ, Bahnson RR.1,25-Dihydroxy-16-ene-23-yne-vitamin D3 and prostate cancer cell proliferation in vivo. Urology. 1995 Sep;46(3):365-9.
11.) Majewski S, Szmurlo A, Marczak M, Jablonska S, Bollag W.: Inhibition of tumor cell-induced angiogenesis by retinoids, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and their combination.Cancer Lett. 1993 Nov 30;75(1):35-9.

Omega 3 Essential Fatty Acids

1.) Colomer R, Moreno-Nogueira JM, García-Luna PP, García-Peris P, García-de-Lorenzo A, Zarazaga A, Quecedo L, del Llano J, Usán L, Casimiro C. N-3 fatty acids, cancer and cachexia: a systematic review of the literature. Br J Nutr. 2007 May;97(5):823-31.
2.) Zhang W, Long Y, Zhang J, Wang C. Modulatory effects of EPA and DHA on proliferation and apoptosis of pancreatic cancer cells. J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci. 2007 Oct;27(5):547-50.
3.) Dauchy RT, Dauchy EM, Davidson LK, Krause JA, Lynch DT, Tirrell PC, Tirrell RP, Sauer LA, Van der Riet P, Blask DE. Inhibition of fatty acid transport and proliferative activity in tissue-isolated human squamous cell cancer xenografts perfused in situ with melatonin or eicosapentaenoic or conjugated linoleic acids. Comp Med. 2007 Aug;57(4):377-82.
4.) Chen J, Power KA, Mann J, Cheng A, Thompson LU. Flaxseed alone or in combination with tamoxifen inhibits MCF-7 breast tumor growth in ovariectomized athymic mice with high circulating levels of estrogen. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2007 Sep;232(8):1071-80.
5.) Kolar SS, Barhoumi R, Callaway ES, Fan YY, Wang N, Lupton JR, Chapkin RS. Synergy between docosahexaenoic acid and butyrate elicits p53-independent apoptosis via mitochondrial Ca(2+) accumulation in colonocytes. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2007 Nov;293(5):G935-43. Epub 2007 Aug 23.
6.) Kato T, Kolenic N, Pardini RS. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a primary tumor suppressive omega-3 fatty acid, inhibits growth of colorectal cancer independent of p53 mutational status. Nutr Cancer. 2007;58(2):178-87.
7.) Espada CE, Berra MA, Martinez MJ, Eynard AR, Pasqualini ME. Effect of Chia oil (Salvia Hispanica) rich in omega-3 fatty acids on the eicosanoid release, apoptosis and T-lymphocyte tumor infiltration in a murine mammary gland adenocarcinoma. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2007 Jul;77(1):21-8. Epub 2007 Jul 6.
8.) Saarinen NM, Power K, Chen J, Thompson LU. Flaxseed attenuates the tumor growth stimulating effect of soy protein in ovariectomized athymic mice with MCF-7 human breast cancer xenografts. Int J Cancer. 2006 Aug 15;119(4):925-31.
9.) Shirota T, Haji S, Yamasaki M, Iwasaki T, Hidaka T, Takeyama Y, Shiozaki H, Ohyanagi H. Apoptosis in human pancreatic cancer cells induced by eicosapentaenoic acid. Nutrition. 2005 Oct;21(10):1010-7.
10.) Schley PD, Jijon HB, Robinson LE, Field CJ. Mechanisms of omega-3 fatty acid-induced growth inhibition in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2005 July;92(2):187-95.
11.) de Deckere EA. Possible beneficial effect of fish and fish n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in breast and colorectal cancer. Eur J Cancer Prev. 1999 Jul;8(3):213-21.
12.) Chang WL, Chapkin RS, Lupton JR. Fish oil blocks azoxymethane-induced rat colon tumorigenesis by increasing cell differentiation and apoptosis rather than decreasing cell proliferation. J Nutr. 1998 Mar;128(3):491-7.
13.) Bagga D, Capone S, Wang HJ, Heber D, Lill M, Chap L, Glaspy JA. Dietary modulation of omega-3/omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratios in patients with breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1997 Aug 6;89(15):1123-31.

Di-indolymethanes (DIM, IC3)

1.) Moiseeva EP, Almeida GM, Jones GD, Manson MM.Extended treatment with physiologic concentrations of dietary phytochemicals results in altered gene expression, reduced growth, and apoptosis of cancer cells. Mol Cancer Ther. 2007 Nov;6(11):3071-9.
2.) Weng JR, Tsai CH, Kulp SK, Wang D, Lin CH, Yang HC, Ma Y, Sargeant A, Chiu CF, Tsai MH, Chen CS. A potent indole-3-carbinol derived antitumor agent with pleiotropic effects on multiple signaling pathways in prostate cancer cells. Cancer Res. 2007 Aug 15;67(16):7815-24.
3.) Pappa G, Strathmann J, Löwinger M, Bartsch H, Gerhäuser C. Quantitative combination effects between sulforaphane and 3,3'-diindolylmethane on proliferation of human colon cancer cells in vitro. Carcinogenesis. 2007 Jul;28(7):1471-7. Epub 2007 Feb 28.
4.) Pappa G, Lichtenberg M, Iori R, Barillari J, Bartsch H, Gerhäuser C. Comparison of growth inhibition profiles and mechanisms of apoptosis induction in human colon cancer cell lines by isothiocyanates and indoles from Brassicaceae. Mutat Res. 2006 Jul 25;599(1-2):76-87. Epub 2006 Feb 24.
5.) Bhuiyan MM, Li Y, Banerjee S, Ahmed F, Wang Z, Ali S, Sarkar FH. Down-regulation of androgen receptor by 3,3'-diindolylmethane contributes to inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis in both hormone-sensitive LNCaP and insensitive C4-2B prostate cancer cells. Cancer Res. 2006 Oct 15;66(20):10064-72.
6.) Aggarwal BB, Ichikawa H. Molecular targets and anticancer potential of indole-3-carbinol and its derivatives. Cell Cycle. 2005 Sep;4(9):1201-15. Epub 2005 Sep 6.
7.) Chinni SR, Li Y, Upadhyay S, Koppolu PK, Sarkar FH. Indole-3-carbinol (I3C) induced cell growth inhibition, G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. Oncogene. 2001 May 24;20(23):2927-36.
8.) Cover CM, Hsieh SJ, Cram EJ, et al. Indole-3-carbinol and tamoxifen cooperate to arrest the cell cycle of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Cancer Res 1999;59:1244–51.

Turmeric (Curcumin)

1.) Ji C, Cao C, Lu S, Kivlin R, Amaral A, Kouttab N, Yang H, Chu W, Bi Z, Di W, Wan Y. Curcumin attenuates EGF-induced AQP3 up-regulation and cell migration in human ovarian cancer cells.Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2008 Jan 23 [Epub ahead of print].
2.) Steward WP, Gescher AJ. Curcumin in cancer management: Recent results of analogue design and clinical studies and desirable future research. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2008 Jan 9 [Epub ahead of print].
3.) Shankar S, Ganapathy S, Chen Q, Srivastava RK. Curcumin sensitizes TRAIL-resistant xenografts: molecular mechanisms of apoptosis, metastasis and angiogenesis. Mol Cancer. 2008 Jan 29;7(1):16 [Epub ahead of print]
4.) Moiseeva EP, Almeida GM, Jones GD, Manson MM. Extended treatment with physiologic concentrations of dietary phytochemicals results in altered gene expression, reduced growth, and apoptosis of cancer cells. Mol Cancer Ther. 2007 Nov;6(11):3071-9.
5.) Shankar S, Chen Q, Sarva K, Siddiqui I, Srivastava RK. Curcumin enhances the apoptosis-inducing potential of TRAIL in prostate cancer cells: molecular mechanisms of apoptosis, migration and angiogenesis. J Mol Signal. 2007 Oct 4;2:10.
6.) Shankar S, Srivastava RK. Bax and Bak genes are essential for maximum apoptotic response by curcumin, a polyphenolic compound and cancer chemopreventive agent derived from turmeric, Curcuma longa. Carcinogenesis. 2007 Jun;28(6):1277-86. Epub 2007 Feb 2.
7.) Shankar S, Srivastava RK. Involvement of Bcl-2 family members, phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase/AKT and mitochondrial p53 in curcumin (diferulolylmethane)-induced apoptosis in prostate cancer. Int J Oncol. 2007 Apr;30(4):905-18.
8.) Somers-Edgar TJ, Scandlyn MJ, Stuart EC, Le Nedelec MJ, Valentine SP, Rosengren RJ. The combination of epigallocatechin gallate and curcumin suppresses ERalpha-breast cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo. Int J Cancer. 2007 Dec 20 [Epub ahead of print].
9.) Chen A, Xu J, Johnson AC. Curcumin inhibits human colon cancer cell growth by suppressing gene expression of epidermal growth factor receptor through reducing the activity of the transcription factor Egr-1. Oncogene. 2006 Jan 12;25(2):278-87.
10.) Wahl H, Tan L, Griffith K, Choi M, Liu JR. Curcumin enhances Apo2L/TRAIL-induced apoptosis in chemoresistant ovarian cancer cells. Gynecol Oncol. 2007 Apr;105(1):104-12. Epub 2006 Dec 15.
11.) Chen J, Wanming D, Zhang D, Liu Q, Kang J.Water-soluble antioxidants improve the antioxidant and anticancer activity of low concentrations of curcumin in human leukemia cells. Pharmazie. 2005 Jan;60(1):57-61.
12.) Deeb DD, Jiang H, Gao X, Divine G, Dulchavsky SA, Gautam SC. Chemosensitization of hormone-refractory prostate cancer cells by curcumin to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. J Exp Ther Oncol. 2005;5(2):81-91.
13.)Dobrovolskaia MA, Kozlov SV.: Inflammation and cancer: when NF-kappaB amalgamates the perilous partnership. Curr Cancer Drug Targets. 2005 Aug;5(5):325-44.
14.) Deeb D, Jiang H, Gao X, Hafner MS, Wong H, Divine G, Chapman RA, Dulchavsky SA, Gautam SC. Curcumin sensitizes prostate cancer cells to tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing gand/Apo2L by inhibiting nuclear factor-kappaB through suppression of IkappaBalpha phosphorylation. Mol Cancer Ther. 2004 Jul;3(7):803-12.
15.) Van Erk MJ, Teuling E, Staal YC, Huybers S, Van Bladeren PJ, Aarts JM, Van Ommen B. Time- and dose-dependent effects of curcumin on gene expression in human colon cancer cells. J Carcinog. 2004 May 12;3(1):8.
16.)Ernst P.: The role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of gastric cancer. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 1999 Mar;13 Suppl 1:13-8
17.) Menon LG, Kuttan R, Kuttan G. Anti-metastatic activity of curcumin and catechin. Cancer Lett 1999;141:159–65.
18.) Khafif A, Schantz SP, Chou TC, Edelstein D, Sacks PG. uantitation of chemopreventive synergism between (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate and curcumin in normal, premalignant and malignant human oral epithelial cells. Carcinogenesis. 1998

Melatonin

1.) Lissoni P, Barni S, Mandalà, et al. Decreased toxicity and increased efficacy of cancer chemotherapy using the pineal hormone melatonin in metastatic solid tumour patients with poor clinical status. Eur J Cancer 1999;35:1688–92.
2.) Lissoni P, Cazzanga M, Tancini G, et al. Reversal of clinical resistance to LHRH analogue in metastatic prostate cancer by the pineal hormone melatonin: efficacy of LHRH analogue plus melatonin in patients progressing on LHRH analogue alone. Eur Urol 1997;31:178–81.
3.) Lissoni P, Paolorossi F, Tancini G, et al. Is there a role for melatonin in the treatment of neoplastic cachexia? Eur J Cancer 1996;32A:1340–3.
4.) Lissoni P, Paolorossi F, Tancini G, et al. A phase II study of tamoxifen plus melatonin in metastatic solid tumour patients. Br J Cancer 1996;74:1466–8.
5.) Lissoni P, Brivio O, Brivio F, et al. Adjuvant therapy with the pineal hormone melatonin in patients with lymph node relapse due to malignant melanoma. J Pineal Res 1996;21:239–42.
6.) Lissoni P, Barmo S. Meregalli S, et al. Modulation of cancer endocrine therapy by melatonin: a phase II study of tamoxifen plus melatonin in metastatic breast cancer patients progressing under tamoxifen alone. Br J Cancer 1995;71:854–6.
7.) Reiter RJ, Melchiorri D, Sewerynek E, Poeggeler B, Barlow-Walden L, Chuang J, Ortiz GG, Acuna-Castroviejo D.: A review of the evidence supporting melatonin's role as an antioxidant.J Pineal Res. 1995 Jan;18(1):1-11.
8.) Neri B, Fiorelli C, Moroni F, et al. Modulation of human lymphoblastoid interferon activity by melatonin in metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Cancer 1994;73:315–9.
9.) Lissoni P, Barni S, Cazzaniga M, Ardizzoia A, Rovelli F, Brivio F, Tancini G.: Efficacy of the concomitant administration of the pineal hormone melatonin in cancer immunotherapy with low-dose IL-2 in patients with advanced solid tumors who had progressed on IL-2 alone. Oncology. 1994 Jul-Aug;51(4):344-7.
10.) Lissoni P, Barni S, Ardizzoia A, et al. A randomized study with the pineal hormone melatonin versus supportive care alone in patients with brain metastases due to solid neoplasms. Cancer 1994;73:699–701.
11.) Lissoni P, Barni S, Tancini G, et al. A randomised study with subcutaneous low-dose interleukin 2 alone vs interleukin 2 plus the pineal neurohormone melatonin in advanced solid neoplasms other than renal cancer and melanoma. Br J Cancer 1994;69:196–9.
12.) Aldeghi R, Lissoni P, Barni S, et al. Low-dose interlekin-2 subcutaneous immunotherapy in association with the pineal hormone melatonin as a first-line therapy in locally advanced or metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma. Eur J Cancer 1994;30A:167–70.
13.) Lissoni P, Brivio F, Ardizzoia A, et al. Subcutaneous therapy with low-dose interlekin-2 plus the neurohormone melatonin in metastatic gastric cancer patients with low performance status. Tumori 1993;79:401–4.
14.) Lissoni P, Barni S, Ardizzoia A, et al. Randomized study with the pineal hormone melatonin versus supportive care alone in advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer resistant to a first-line chemotherapy containing cisplatin. Oncology 1992;49:336–9.
15.) Lissoni P, Barni S, Crispino S, et al. Endocrine and immune effects of melatonin therapy in metastatic cancer patients. Eur J Cancer Clin Oncol 1989;25:789–95.

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